The Gothenburg MCI study is a large, prospective, clinical study, initiated in 1999. With this study, we aim to investigate why some patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop dementia, while others do not. Another important aim is to clarify the borders and overlap between closely related dementia disorders. The Gothenburg MCI study is also the source of several substudies.
Patients aged between 50 and 79 seeking care for cognitive difficulties and diagnosed with MCI or mild dementia are included into the Gothenburg MCI study. The diagnosis of MCI or mild dementia is made using simple clinical instruments, independently of neuropsychological assessment. Patients who exhibit signs of severe concurrent psychiatric or somatic disorder are not included. All participants are examined at baseline, and after 2, 4, 6, and 10 years. Clinical and biochemical analyses of blood and cerebrospinal fluids are made at all examinations. The clinical examination consists of a systematic anamnesis with instruments designed to pick up on symptoms reported by participants and their relatives, as well as cognitive, neurological, psychiatric, and somatic status. Symptoms attributable to different brain regions are examined, as well as depressive symptoms. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is made at baseline, and after 2 and 6 years. Genetic analyses are carried out at baseline, MRI and SPECT at baseline and after 2 years. Healthy controls are recruited via associations for senior citizens, and go through the same procedures as the patients.
When possible, the patient meets the same staff (teams consisting of a physician, a licensed psychologist, a counselor, and a nurse) throughout the study period.
Data collection is integrated into clinical practice. This places high demands of logistics and cooperation on the people who work with the study.
To date, over 600 participants have been included, 400 have been followed up after 2 years, 200 after 4 years, 100 after 6 years, and 20 after 10 years. 150 healthy controls have been included, 70 have been followed up after 2 years, 50 after 4 years, and 30 after 6 years.
One substudy deals with the borders and overlap between cerebral small vessel disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Small vessel disease is the most common vascular cognitive disorder. It presents with executive impairments, gait disturbance, and white matter changes on MRI. Characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease are memory impairments and grey matter changes. In both diseases the metabolism of beta-amyloid is disturbed. The diseases occur both separately and in mixed forms. The aim of this specific study is to discriminate between the two diseases by means of analysis of cognitive profiles, image analysis of the hippocampi and the white matter, biochemical analysis of beta-amyloid peptides, enzyme and immune activity in the extracellular matrix, and analysis of synaptic function. Furthermore, we aim to ascertain when mixed forms are present during early and later stages of the disease process. The results are expected to impact, among other things, selection processes in clinical trials.
In another substudy, we aim to investigate what characterizes patients with cognitive impairments who later recover to normal function. Educational level and other socioeconomic factors may be of importance. Larger hippocampi and amygdala nuclei may be protective, as well as well-developed neural networks.
A third substudy investigates if physical activity may improve cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
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Rosenberg G, Bjerke M, Wallin A. Multimodal Markers of Inflammation in the Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Disease Type of Vascular Cognitive Impairment. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2014.
Nyberg J, Aberg M, Schiöler L, Nilsson M, Wallin A, Torén K, et al. Cardiovascular and cognitive fitness at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia. Brain: a journal of neurology. 2014.
Stålhammar J, Nordlund A, Wallin A. An example of exceptional practice effects in the verbal domain. Neurocase. 2014.
Jonsdottir IH, Nordlund A, Ellbin S, Ljung T, Glise K, Wahrborg P, et al. Cognitive impairment in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Stress. 2013;16(2):181-90.
Eckerstrom C, Olsson E, Bjerke M, Malmgren H, Edman A, Wallin A, et al. A Combination of Neuropsychological, Neuroimaging, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers Predicts Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;36(3):421-31.
Olsson E, Klasson N, Berge J, Eckerstrom C, Edman A, Malmgren H, et al. White Matter Lesion Assessment in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls: Reliability Comparisons between Visual Rating, a Manual, and an Automatic Volumetrical MRI Method-The Gothenburg MCI Study. J Aging Res. 2013;2013:198471.
Berg AI, Wallin A, Nordlund A, Johansson B. Living with stable MCI: Experiences among 17 individuals evaluated at a memory clinic. Aging Ment Health. 2013;17(3):293-9.
Rolstad S, Berg AI, Bjerke M, Johansson B, Zetterberg H, Wallin A. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Mirror Rate of Cognitive Decline. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;34(4):949-56.
Illustrations: Jacob Stålhammar.